The Russian Revolution, 1900-1927 (Studies in European History)
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This popular, concise and highly readable study discusses the key themes and debates about the Russian Revolution. Robert Service's lively analysis examines:
• state and society under the Romanovs from 1900
• the February and October Revolutions of 1917
• the final years of the Romanov dynasty and the start of the Soviet order
• comparisons with political, social and economic trends elsewhere in the world
• the extent to which the later development of the USSR was conditioned by the October Revolution.
Clear and incisive, the fourth edition has been thoroughly revised and updated in the light of the latest research and features a new scene-setting Introduction and maps. Service's text remains the essential starting point for anyone studying this tumultuous period in the history of Russia and the world in the twentieth century.
Political instability Of course, the real achievements in the economy are not to be understated. The dynamism of Russian agriculture and industry was impressive, and the strictly economic difficulties, in the factories if not in the countryside, posed no immediate basic threat to capitalist development. But the poverty of nearly all workers and most peasants remained. Its persistence was a Damocles' sword hanging over the body of the imperial economy. From 1912, political travail returned.
disarray. On 28 June 1914 the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo, and the AustroHungarian government exploited the opportunity to provoke dispute with Serbia. Russia announced support for the Serbians. Austria-Hungary, encouraged by the German government, attacked Serbia. The Russian emperor began his army's preliminary mobilisation. Germany commenced to mobilise against Russia. France promised military solidarity with Russia, and a reluctant British cabinet backed the
death in the Volga region. Diplomatic reverses added to the distress. The French and British delegations at an international conference in Genoa in 1922 spurned the Soviet request for reacceptance into the world trading community; only the Germans, from among the great powers, would initially co-operate. In addition, domestic pricing policy was mishandled. Peasants by 1923 were being asked to pay three times as much, in real value, for urban products as in 1913. They stopped trading their grain
'local committees' 37,41,54,61, 68, 73 activists 37,41-2,48 rank-and-filers 41,62,70 organisational methods 41,57,62, 68,71 involvement with workers 21, 37, 42,51,69 and with peasants 37, 54, 65 see also Central Committee, Politburo, Orgburo, Secretariat and individual leaders. Bolshevism 22,41-43,45,53,54,57, 59 see also under Bolsheviks, Bosnia 23 Brazil 3 Brest-Litovsk, treaty of 50, 56, 57 Brezhnev, L. I. 77 Britain 2,17,22,43-4,59,63,65, 71 Brusilov, A. A. 34 Bukharin, N. I. 50,71,72,79
44-45, 46,47-48,52,54,56,59,75 Octobrists 15, 16, 27, Odessa 59 officers, see army officers oil 6,65 Omsk 57 one-party state 47,54-55,57,63,67, 68 Orgburo 57, 68 Orthodox Church, see Church Ottoman empire 2 output, see under agriculture, industry Pacific Ocean 3 Paris 2 parliaments in Russia, see Duma, Constituent Assembly Party Congresses (Bolshevik): Seventh 50 Tenth 62-3 pastures 12, 14, 37 peasants 1,4,13,14,19--20,23,27, 28,33,54,63,65,75 customs 9--10,19,66 renting and buying of land 9,