The Morphology of Chinese: A Linguistic and Cognitive Approach
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This book aims to dispel the myth that Chinese "doesn't have words" but instead "has characters." Jerome Packard challenges the common belief that Chinese has no morphology, demonstrating how analysis of Chinese word formation enhances our understanding of word universals in natural language. His book describes the intimate relationship between words and their components and offers new insights into their evolution. Models are offered for how Chinese words are stored in the mental lexicon and processed in natural speech.
car-out ‘outside the car’, lùshang road-on ‘on the road’, shàngcéng top-level ‘upper level’, wàirén out-person ‘stranger’, qiánrén ahead-person ‘predecessors’ and xiàshuH under-water ‘downriver’. They are more restricted in occuring with bound roots, but somewhat productive when used in this way nonetheless. Some examples are zhuDshàng ¹⁶ The only time numerals might be considered ‘free’ is in the specialized context of serial counting. table-on ‘on the table’,
not be submorphemic. Having presented a morphological analysis of Chinese word components, we now move on to the identity of Chinese gestalt words considered in terms of the form class identities of those components as discussed in .. Regarding the morphological analysis of the components just presented, we will use that information in the following chapter, and use it even more fully when we discuss the abstract properties of Mandarin morphemes in chapter . 4
ball-paddle ‘cleaver’ ‘airport’ ‘pipe’ ‘racket’ N₁ depicts the form of N₂: shatáng piànjì kuàiméi zhuanchá N₂ depicts the form of N₁:³ xughua bcngkuài yàofgn cházhuan N₂ is used for N₁: càidao jcchfng yandiu qiúpai ³ Examples such as xuGhuA snow-flower ‘snowflake’, which show N₂ in the form of N₁, seem to run counter to the structural generalization that ‘N₁ specifies some characteristic of N₂’. Grammatically speaking, this is still interpreted structurally as ‘N₂ composed of N₁’, e.g., xuGhuA
that the heads of words (and roots) in English are exclusively on the right (since X never occurs as the left-hand member of the expansion). Therefore English prefixes, in general, cannot serve as the heads of words (or roots).² From the rules in () and (), we see that aﬃxed words (ignoring prefixes) may be generated directly as words, taking the form seen in () (generated from the rules in ()): (68) X–0 Y –0 XAFF or they may be generated first as stems, taking the form seen in ()
to a larger word (such as hEnshBng- in () and many other examples) do not actually occur as free X−⁰ forms. The natural implication is that - they are bound, i.e., X−¹, and that this presents a problem since X−¹ forms are not supposed to branch. My analysis suggests that these are morphological words (see discussion of mAotóuyCng cat-headhawk ‘owl’ in ..), and that their use and acceptability as potential free words is predicted.¹⁷ Structures that show