The Cambridge Dictionary of Judaism and Jewish Culture
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
The Cambridge Dictionary of Jewish History, Religion, and Culture is an authoritative and accessible reference work for a twenty-first-century audience. Its entries, written by eminent scholars, define the spiritual and intellectual concepts and religious movements that distinguish Judaism and the Jewish experience; they discuss central personalities and places, formative events, and enduring literary and cultural contributions, and they illuminate the lives of ordinary Jewish men and women. Essays explore Jewish history from ancient times to the present and consider all aspects of Judaism, including religious practices and rituals, legal teachings and legendary traditions, and rationalism, mysticism, and messianism. This reference work differs from many others in its broad exploration of the Jewish experience beyond Judaism. Entries discuss secular and political movements and achievements and delineate Jewish endeavors in literature, art, music, theater, dance, film, broadcasting, sports, science, medicine, and ecology, among many other topics from the Bible to the Internet.
visually distinguishing poetic passages through stichography (special spacing) evolved over time; the visual layout of poetic verse cannot be relied on as a decisive indicator of poetry in the Hebrew Bible. Nonetheless, certain central indicators have enabled scholars to gain a consensus as to what qualifies as biblical poetry. Bible: Prayer Language. ∗ Prayer, by which I mean speech to (or, in some cases, about) ∗ God, is very common in the Hebrew ∗ Bible. Some prayers are short: ∗ Genesis
only rudimentary knowledge of either Hebrew or German. The ∗ JudeoGerman Tzene-rene from the mid-1600s, was promoted as a “woman’s Bible,” in keeping with the long-standing view that only women and children (and unlearned men, who were like women in their lack of an education in Hebrew) would need vernacular texts. At the end of the eighteenth century, Moses ∗ Mendelssohn, a major Jewish Enlightenment (∗ Haskalah) figure, produced a version that combined the best German diction and styling of his
cities on the ∗ Roman Empire’s eastern frontier. See also ARCHEOLOGY, LAND OF ISRAEL: ANCIENT TIMES TO PERSIAN PERIOD. Map 2 B ETH A LPERT N AKHAI Amora, Amoraim (from ∗ Aramaic and ∗ Hebrew amar, “to say, speak”) are rabbinic teachers from the formative 11 Amora, Amoraim Amsterdam these schools was loose; students could leave one teacher and go to another. Babylonian Amoraim were apparently less involved in the synagogue than their Palestinian counterparts, but did give public lectures. The
period are relatively sparse. Sites on the coast provide clear evidence for significant contact between the ∗ Near East and the rest of the eastern Mediterranean world. In parts of ∗ Samaria and ∗ Galilee there was noteworthy contact with ∗ Phoenicia to the north. Inland, in the hills of ancient Judah, the artifacts reveal a more isolated cultural setting. The area around ∗ Jerusalem was not heavily affected by other cultures, other than the locally operated Persian administration. Persia did not
centrality of the Exodus in the Jewish sacred story and by emphasizing that it was foreordained and inevitable. In Ashkenazic haggadot, narrative illustration is less panoramic and more selective. Throughout the Middle Ages illustrations remained fairly limited and tended to be based on the narratives contained in the text of the haggadah itself, with illustrations based only on elements referred to explicitly in the text, like the Rabbis of B’nai B’rak, the “Four 42 Art: Medieval Manuscript