Recast All under Heaven: Revolution, War, Diplomacy, and Frontier China in the 20th Century
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In applying the two interpretative themes of "frontier" and "ethnicity", the book examines the externalization from and internalization to China by a number of the tributary affiliates and outlying territories of the by-gone Qing Empire (e.g. Korea, Vietnam, "Outer" and Inner Mongolia, Tibet, and Xinjiang) The historical developments dissected here are certain overlooked aspects of the otherwise well-scrutinized international history of 20th-century East Asia. These helped transform the territorial domain and ethnic composition of the Chinese state from "imperial" to "national" The book is unique in blending analyses of "domestic" and "international" developments involved in China's modern reincarnation, and in providing an integral narrative that links historical themes pertinent to the eastern and western halves of China. While the frontier characteristics of the Chinese state in the pre-industrial age are not news to the field of China studies, this is the first study contending that "frontier China" has remained a fitting characterization of the rising Asian giant.
Brill, 2002); and Xiaoyuan Liu, Reins of Liberation: An Entangled History of Mongolian Independence, Chinese Territoriality, and Great Power Hegemony, 1911–1950 (Stanford and Washington, DC: Stanford University Press and Wilson Center Press, 2006). Noticeable works on modern Tibet are Melvyn Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989) and A History of Modern Tibet, 1952–1956: Gathering of Storms (Berkeley:
that of the left, for it is solely concerned with the fulfilment of self-determination, not with any other ideologies.9 This assertion can be applied to the case of China in the sense that ultimately the KMT and the CCP agreed on the most basic items of China’s national agenda. Otherwise, the two parties’ respective ideological convictions did contaminate their nation-making and state-building programs. A close examination of the CCP’s experience with the “national question” or China’s ethnic
fighting as an ally of the United States and Great Britain, the Chinese government could at last hope to be treated as an equal by the Western powers, a status that had been denied to China during the past century.2 As such an equal, the Chinese government was faced with some long-term policy issues. The most important was how to define China’s new role and position in the world in general and in Asia in particular. Chongqing’s definition was ambivalent. Chinese leaders were certainly pleased by
For relevant CCP documents, see “Outline of the Northwestern Work Committee of the CCP Central Committee on the Question of the Hui Nationality, April 1940,” MWWH, 648–656, and “Outline of the Northwestern Work Committee of the CCP Central Committee on the Question of the Mongol Nationality in the War of Resistance, July 1940,” ibid., 657–667. 85. Conner, 38. CHAPTER SEVEN Solve Rubik’s Cube in the Steppes During the second half of the 1940s two landmark events happened to the Mongolian
the CCP and the KMT took opposite stands on the matter: while the KMT feared the MPR’s agitation among the Inner Mongols, the CCP wanted to create an Inner Mongolian movement to facilitate its own relationship with the MPR. Clearly, at least at the beginning, CCP leaders believed that the cross-border ethnic factor would be beneficial to its own connection with the Soviet bloc. Also like the KMT, the CCP leadership failed completely to anticipate the Inner Mongols’ political spontaneity at the