Leadership and Management in China: Philosophies, Theories, and Practices
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With the rise of China in the global economy, it has never been more important for business leaders to understand Chinese leadership philosophies and practices. This is the first book to explain how ancient Chinese thinking and Western ideas have shaped the development of leadership styles in China. Leadership theories associated with Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism, the Arts of War, and the writings of Mao and Deng are analysed by both Chinese and Western experts. To set this in a modern business context, the book includes interviews with top executives, who reflect on how their business values are affected by ancient Chinese philosophers, modern Chinese leaders, and Western management writers and thinkers. The book also includes research on paternalistic leadership as practised by business leaders in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and mainland China.
reverential carefulness.’ ‘And is this all?’ said Zilu. ‘He cultivates himself so as to give rest to others,’ was the reply. ‘And is this all?’ again asked Zilu. The Master said: ‘He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people’’’ (Yang, 1958: 166). The phrase ‘‘to give rest to others’’ is translated from the Chinese phrase an ren. The verb an has different meanings depending on the object to which it is applied. It could mean, for example, ‘‘to help settle down,’’ ‘‘to find a place/
to further integrate and synergize the knowledge; they interact with others to learn the way of being a good person, to remove weaknesses, and to cultivate good character. A sage-king and a noble-minded person should hold themselves to the loftiest standards of character and Bridging Confucianism and Legalism 71 conduct and serve as examples of the core virtues of benevolence, righteousness, conduct propriety, and wisdom. Assembling the worthy and the competent. To Xunzi, social, cultural,
AA014842-01) and by a Minnesota State University research grant (Grant No. 211555) given to the first author. 83 84 Yueh-ting Lee et al. At the outset, two notes are in order. First, throughout this chapter, the standard system of Chinese pronunciation, the Pinyin system, is used for the transliteration of proper nouns from the original Chinese. Those quoted from other sources, however, may have been translated by their original authors using an alternate system. For example, Laozi, Daoism,
die, there will be no market for coffins. The carpenter has no feeling of hatred toward others; he merely stands to profit by their death. (Guarding against the interior)6 Farming requires a lot of hard work but people will do it because they say, ‘‘This way we can get rich.’’ War is a dangerous undertaking but people will take part in it because they say, ‘‘This way we can become eminent.’’ (The five vermin)7 Leadership theory of Legalism 113 Hanfei proposed his theory of leadership on the
and ethically unacceptable in non-combat situations, Sunzi’s humanist orientation is recognized by specialists (Cleary, 2000) but overlooked in the popular literature. Here we present evidence of the Confucian philosophy of benevolence and righteousness in Sunzi’s warfare philosophy. Table 5.3 lists sentences from the Art of war that illustrate Confucian values of benevolence and righteousness. Sunzi prescribed humanism in four types of relationship that the leader has: with the community at