Chinese: A Comprehensive Grammar (Routledge Comprehensive Grammars)
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Chinese: A Comprehensive Grammar is a complete reference guide to Chinese grammar which presents a fresh and accessible description of the language, concentrating on the real patterns of use in modern Chinese.
The volume is organized to promote a thorough understanding of Chinese grammar. It offers a stimulating analysis of the complexities of the language and provides full and clear explanations. Throughout, the emphasis is on Chinese as used by present-day native speakers. An extensive index and numbered paragraphs provide readers with easy access to the information they require.
The new edition features a revised and expanded chapter on prosody (Prosody and Syntax), as well as four completely new chapters:
• Morphology and Syntax (I) looks at Chinese word formation
• Morphology and Syntax (II) explores the interaction between words, expressions and sentences
• Intralingual Transpositions reviews the possible conversions between sentential constructions
• Interlingual Conversions examines the differences between Chinese and English.
The Grammar is an essential reference source for the adult learner and user of Chinese. It is ideal for independent study and for use in schools, colleges, universities and adult classes, up to an advanced level.
bought adjective + noun noun + noun verb + noun clause + noun the shops along prepositional phrase the road + noun the people at home postpositional phrase + noun two women numeral + mw + noun (f) M ^ i c A Hang ge niiren that man demonstrative + mw ffi^^A nei ge nanren + noun my book(s) pronoun + noun S W ^ wode shu (g) -W-ylylwang wang wuji a boundless stretch idiom + noun (h) "M^cPiW^J^ de caoyuan of grassland From the above list, two features of the attributive in Chinese can be observed.
BliicfcifSlSiK^RlSf ° zuotian wo qu shangchang mai dongxi Yesterday I went to the shop to buy some things. ta jintian mei (you) lai He has not come today. iL5Ef!^c&JlT ~T~%~kM ° qunian dongtian zher xia le yi chang da xue There was a heavy snowfall here last winter. wo xiawu san dian ban zai daxue menkou deng ni I will wait for you at half past three this afternoon at the entrance to the University. In contrast with English, point-of-time expressions in Chinese follow the order of year, month,
put-in-order-well bedclothes) Mother straightened the bed-clothes. jiejie ma ganjing (le) zhuozi (lit. elder sister wipe-clean table) Elder sister wiped the table clean. Note that in the last two examples the completed action aspect marker T le is likely to become optional for reasons of rhythm, when either the verb or the complement is disyllabic. Common resultative adjectives are mostly monosyllables from the language's adjectival lexicon, including the following: tfi bao 'full from eating', Bf
only then sleep) He did not go to bed till daybreak. ifa—'StBifJ^^cifc ° ta yi jiao shui dao da tianliang (lit. he one sleep sleep cv:till daylight) He slept right through to daybreak. zhi: to: I t Iff S l t t / t ' ^ T H @ ° shiqing zhi ci cai you le meimu (lit. matter cv:till this only then have le prospect of solution) The matter only now has a prospect of solution. M X # t S i S f t ° ta gongzuo zhizhi shenye (lit. she work direct cv.to deep night) She worked deep into the night. & qi: till:
faced danger without fear. wo linxing congmang | laibuji xiang nin gaobie (lit. I cv.at the point of leaving in a hurry, no time cv:to you (polite) say good-bye) I was very busy before departing and didn't have time to say goodbye to you [polite]. Coverbs 177 i ding: until: ding lingchen si dian ta cai shuijiao (lit. cv:until approach morning four o'clock he only then sleep) He did not go to bed until 4 o'clock in the early hours of the morning. coverb usage register collocational